As discussed earlier, diabetes is associated with a lot of complications. These complications are broadly categorized into two types, 1) acute and, 2) chronic (1). Acute is a sudden syndrome which includes, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state, hypoglycaemia, and diabetic coma (1, 2). Chronic conditions are long-developing syndromes which includes, hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, dyslipidemia, micro and macrovascular complications, microangiopathy, neuropathy and other complications (1-7) . Combining all of the complications from various literature, a synthesized diagram of clinical complications of diabetes is illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Types of clinical complications of diabetes (Source: Author’s construct)

Besides clinical complications, there are a lot of things which impact negatively on various aspects of a patient’s life. These are combinedly termed as disease burden which is explained in the next section.

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In the next blog you will know about the disease disease burden of diabetes.


References

  1. Pinhas-Hamiel O, Zeitler P. Acute and chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The Lancet. 2007;369(9575):1823-31.
  2. Frier BM, Fisher M. Diabetes Mellitus. In: Colledge NR, Walker BR, Ralston SH, Davidson S, editors. Davidson’s principles and practice of medicine. 21st ed. / the editors, Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, Stuart H. Ralston ; illustrated by Robert Britton. ed. Edinburgh ;: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2010. p. 795-840.
  3. Mayo Clinic. Complications 2018 [Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20371444.
  4. Healthline. Diabetes Complications 2017 [Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/diabetes-complications.
  5. Gregg EW, Li Y, Wang J, Rios Burrows N, Ali MK, Rolka D, et al. Changes in Diabetes-Related Complications in the United States, 1990–2010. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014;370(16):1514-23.
  6. American Diabetes A. Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl 1):S62-S9.
  7. Islam SMS, Alam DS, Wahiduzzaman M, Niessen LW, Froeschl G, Ferrari U, et al. Clinical characteristics and complications of patients with type 2 diabetes attending an urban hospital in Bangladesh. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2014;9(1):7-13.